ABSTRACT: Our notions about ourselves and the nature
of the world (worldview) around us are filtered through our prejudices
about "the way things work". We never apprehend reality directly--only
our world-simulation which is congealed from the convergence of our sensory
input channels and the information-creating processes of chaotic neural
activity. The brain filters and creates reality.
Brains are chaotic systems which create internal perceptual
patterns that substitute directly for sensory stimuli. These stimuli
are evoked potentials or evoked fields--standing waves in the brain.
Imagination has the ability to induce real-time changes in the psychophysical
Imagination embodies the power of transformation. It may
be accessed through obvious imagery, such as dreams, vision, and other
sensory analogs, or viewed directly in symptoms, behavior patterns, emotional
patterns, mental concepts, and spiritual beliefs.
The imaginal process is our primary experience and it permeates
and conditions all facets of human life. During experiential psychotherapy,
the sensory-motor cortex system is influenced through imagination.
Psyche affects substance at the most fundamental level, through chaotic
Imagination is not a talent of some men, but is the health of every
--Ralph Waldo Emerson
In answer to the introductory question of what is consciousness, it
is this flickering process that combines corollary discharge with the messages
on all the sensory lines. These sensory lines at once carry fresh
input and are shaped by previous experience. Like them, consciousness
bears the imprint of both the recent past and the expectation of future
action, real or imagined, that will shortly involve the most intimate reaches
of the brain and body
--Walter J. Freeman, MACHINERY OF THE MIND
"Chaosophy" is a natural philosophy emerging from the implications
of research in complex dynamic systems. It is a radical re-visioning
of our notions about the way things work in the universe. Our notions
about the nature of our existence are conditioned by our understanding
or comprehension of state-of-the-art scientific awareness as well as cultural
and spiritual experience.
Chaos is being investigated in many different phenomena, and is a major
influence in developing a new paradigm. Some of the most promising
results are coming from consciousness studies and experiential psychotherapy.
There are many psychological and philosophical implications to chaos theory
which reflect on our apprehension of the nature of our existence.
It is helping us create an integrated view of psyche, soul, and nature.
Chaos theory reflects on the age old questions of determinism, stability
and change, creativity, free will, and the underlying nature of spacetime.
It is well established now that most movements in nature, ranging from
the orbits of planets to behavioral adjustments in life, are essentially
Since the Enlightenment, the western mind has had trouble comprehending
the nature of reality. We adopted a cause and effect, mechanistic
notion of reality (the clockwork universe) which fit well with our level
of observation. Therefore, it felt intuitively correct. But
now we can observe the infinitely small and cosmic levels of dynamics,
and find a counter-intuitive challenge to our causal philosophy, in quantum
mechanics and chaos theory.
Einstein taught us that "all is relative" to the point of view or
orientation of the observer. Relativity eliminated the Newtonian
illusion of absolute space and time. Quantum mechanics introduced
the uncertainty principle, mandating participation rather than observation.
And chaos theory means dynamic processes are deterministic though unpredictable.
This pretty much undermines the old scientific perspective of cause-and-effect
predictability, repeatability, and objectivity.
Yet, our biology still seems to condition our philosophy. Neurologist
Walter Freeman has suggested that, "the physiological basis for our
human conception of cause and effect lies in the mechanism of reafference;
namely, that each intended action is accompanied by a motor command ("cause")
and expected consequence ("effect") so that the notion of causality lies
at the most fundamental level of our capacity for acting and knowing.
This trait results in the replacement of sensory stimuli by self-organized
activity patterns that are contingent on past experience, present motivational
state, and expectancy of future action."
But he goes on to say that, "the intuition of causality is essential
for human understanding and action but it cannot validly be applied to
the process by which intuition emerges." Intuition is an informational
source which is non-linear and therefore can create quantum leaps in consciousness.
Reality seems to depend on how you look at it.
Embracing the true nature of reality, embracing the darkness and chaos
leads to new intuitive perceptions which accord with an expanded perspective--new
images. The healing capacity of images is well known. When
we become that chaos, our old notions and forms are de-structured.
Intuition makes a quantum leap, and what seemed counter-intuitive now seems
to "make sense," viscerally, emotionally, mentally, and spiritually.
Through imagination, we can "see through" to a deeper level of reality.
It all depends on how one looks at it.
VIRTUAL REALITY CHECK
Mystics have always spoken of the illusory nature of consensus reality--ordinary
consciousness--and so does quantum physics. Mind and matter are not
separate, not two separate worlds. Matter embodies imagination; it
mandates participation, not objective observation.
We are learning to "see through" the three great illusions of time, space,
and the separate ego. There is no objective point of observation
in the universe. Solid physical existence is a complex illusion.
All is mind-stuff, an intangible, mythically or archetypally structured,
Charles Tart, the "altered states" expert, notes that "we already live
in a variety of internally generated virtual realities...We live 'inside'
a world simulation machine. We almost always forget that our 'perception'
is a simulation, not reality itself..." We clearly experience
the outer world indirectly through electrochemical changes in various receptor
organs, which process raw neurological information. But consciousness
is more than those electrochemical processes in the nervous system.
Identified with our ego (self simulation) it is no more than that.
But there is a deeper current of microstates which conditions our perception
of reality. Transpersonal experience creates a new interpretation,
or perspective on reality. We live in a chaotic universe to which
we are seamlessly wed. We are a chaotic system ourselves, and chaotic
systems exhibit holistic behavior. Holism sees the world in all its
diversity as connected. It's not only a case of "we are the world";
we are one with the whole universe of phenomena and being in the deepest
sense. The unifying force is consciousness.
Our decisions about what is "real" in the world and ourselves is influenced
by the virtual reality created by our world simulation process, according
to Tart (1990). We can experience a sense of an internal psychological
self beyond our bodily components--primal self image--and alterations in
this image affect us in the real world. When the image changes creatively,
so do behaviors, feelings, conceptualizations, and beliefs. Our self-simulation
is a dynamic image which unfolds through a myriad of forms and patterns,
microstates woven into a unified perception of consciousness.
Like fractal patterns emerging on the computer screen, no process-oriented
therapist can fail to notice the aesthetic beauty of the unfolding process
of the creative imagination. Experiential psychotherapy facilitates
the participating, rather than observing self. Therapy is an art,
and as such, it yields esthetic and physical pleasure as by-products.
When the therapist joins with the participant, rather than remaining "objective
observer", a co-creative shared reality emerges.
This shared reality is more than mutual hypnosis, or shared subjectivity.
It is a virtual world that is essentially an artistic, expressive form--a
"living form." Art embodies imagination. A work of art is an
expressive form created for our perception through sense or imagination,
and it expresses human feeling. A work of art expresses a conception
of life, emotion, inward reality--the logic of consciousness itself.
Process work is experience set-off from the general flow of life experience.
It is AN EXPERIENCE which stands out and presents itself as having some
kind of unity. These states can occur spontaneously, but are facilitated
through therapy. Other examples are sudden illumination, esthetic
appreciation, opening to nature, simple recognition to dramatic realization,
awe. An experience always has aesthetic appeal. They are self-consciously
recognized as being our own personal experiences where we are reflectively
aware of our awareness.
Not all awareness is heightened awareness. To know is one thing and
to be is another. This is the gulf which experiential therapy bridges.
Inviting someone deeper into their process--inviting them to become the
image--means a temporary disidentification from personality and ego.
"Me-experiencing-this" is superceded by the sense that "I AM" an incredibly
wide variety of consciousness states in dynamic flux. Alienation
and duality of self are suspended in favor of complex connectedness.
The creative state is conducive to the evolution of novel relations and
new meaning. This is expressed as a response of delight, distress,
Immersion in this fluid flux of consciousness is virtual experience--imaginal,
yes, but nonetheless real. It is poetic, metaphorical, epistemological.
These images are the basis of "how we know what we know." They define
us, and whatever they are, we are essentially that. Becoming them,
we consciously realize experientially, "I AM THAT." The image "matters"
as it is embodied.
When we have a therapeutic experience, it involves a degree of realization
of "what it is like" to apprehend this given, to undergo this happening.
It may not be actual experience, but it is influential experience.
Creativity is an excited-exalted state of arousal with a characteristic
increase in both information content and the rate of information processing.
Imagination is embodied, objectified, expressed in the therapeutic process.
It is knowing by living through, distinctionally different from knowing
about. It carries a sense of immediacy--it always is happening in
Knowledge about natural phenomena, the way nature and ourselves work, can
help us attune to deeper resources. Natural science deals with man
as one phenomena among others in a natural world. We now see the
influence and beauty of chaotic dynamics as it unfolds in the natural world
and our own physiology and psychology. Embracing that, following
nature's lead, we learn to cooperate with our own transformative process--through
chaotic dynamics--through the mystification of science.
The therapeutic art is designed to elicit a full response: sensuous, intellectual,
and emotional, not separated but interfused. It has an air of intimacy,
of immediacy. The fullness of presentation matches the fullness of
response--yielding a sense of lived experience--personal experience.
Like art, experiential therapy is inherently humanistic--concerned with
human feelings and values. It helps us embody those values, and the
nature of beauty.
Beauty is an emotional value which affects our volitional and appreciative
nature. It is not inherent in any thing, but is our own pleasure
regarded as the quality of a thing or event. It is neither intrinsic
nor objectified. It is the first-hand experience of a state of consciousness.
It may not be in the eye only, but beauty is in the beholder. Yet
the beholder doesn't stand on the outside looking in, but becomes the object
of contemplation. When the focus of contemplation is the self, a
complex feedback loop manifests of self contemplating self manifesting
self, contemplating self.
Beauty as a state of consciousness is described in the Qabala and Hermetic
Philosophy as the sphere Tiphareth, on the Tree of Life. In psychological
terms it implies transcendence of the realm of personality and intimate
knowledge of the transpersonal self. It corresponds with healing,
creativity, genius, and bliss states or unitive experiences.
The direct path to this sphere on the Tree of Life is called "ART", and
concerns itself with the paradoxical melding of the opposites. Art
had its origin in magic. It is the path of transcendence from personality
to Self, through the Middle Way. Art is the explication of the transformative
process. Through art, common experience is transformed to archetypal,
timeless experience. Art is nature transformed. Art shapes
our perception of things outside ourselves, and embodies the workings of
Archetype, ritual, myth, and dream are other manifestations of this same
parataxic mode, as is expressive therapy. It is characterized by
the production of images who meaning is not clear or categorical (Gowan,
1975). In parataxic mode, symbols or images are used in a private
or idiosyncratic manner. Through art, they can be shared with others,
expressing feeling and transmitting understanding. In contrast, in the
creative mode (Tiphareth) meaning is more or less fully cognized symbolically,
with ego present.
In complex dynamics, the opposites to be wed are order and chaos.
Order is "in-formation," the form within. Interesting transforms
happen at the threshold of chaos. In therapeutic terms, this chaotic
consciousness is where ego death is consummated and new order subsequently
The dynamic union of chaos and order is symbolic of our human process of
transformation: old outworn forms break down (ego death), and that
chaos is fertile ground for creative rebirth, rejuvenation. This
Royal Wedding means nothing less than finding the lost soul--the alienated
part of oneself which we normally call "Not-I."
In the ancient art of alchemy (another analog of the transformation process),
the soul is depicted as a homunculus, or "small man." It was symbolically
equivalent to the Philosopher's Stone, and the Elixer or Universal Medicine.
This homunculus personified the unconscious as an Inner Man, a hermaphroditic
being, a spirit in the bottle, a "brain child."
Zosimos and Paracelsus spoke of the homunculus as devouring himself, rending
himself with his own teeth, like the Urobouros serpent which bites its
tail and gives birth to itself. Both homunculus and uroborous are
symbols of paradox. What an image of the dynamics of chaos and order,
as it appears in experiential psychotherapy. The image typically
appears before dissolution of the center into its unconscious element--the
undifferentiated consciousness of the ground state.
The liquid form of the philosopher's stone is the called the "universal
solvent," and chaos is certainly that. As such, it reflects the self--the
prima materia, the massa confusa of the original chaotic state.
Consciousness occurs in a continuum accompanying the flow of matter and
energy in and through brains. Our apprehension of all of our experience
is conditioned by our input channels, the sensory and extrasensory (or
metaphorical) systems. Intuition is one such meta-sensory channel.
Walter Freeman believes that perception begins with an internally generated
neural process that prepares the organism to seek future stimuli in the
outside world. Between the experience and the input that triggers
the experience, something is "added" to conscious experience by the transformational
processes that lead from sense organ to brain. Invariant stimulus
from the environment (physical space) arrives as information in sensory
space and finally proceeds to cerebral space as meaningful input.
Experience is synchronized cerebral, sensory, and physical (survival) space-times.
Meaning is a function of the level of arousal at which it is experienced.
The symbolic interpretation of one's own central nervous system activity,
the integration of information to systemic meaning depends on the level
Higher levels of arousal, and thus more complete withdrawl from physical
space-time into cerebral space-time, narrow the field of attention and
deepen the experience of meaning (Fischer, 1969). Meaning results
from integration of information within the systemic context of a self-referential,
The brain interprets this input, along with its own creative addition of
(virtual) information, and creates a simulation of perceived reality.
It is a convergence of the body sense of muscles and joints, the viscera,
and the outward-looking senses.
Nerve signals from all over the body are sent to the thalamus, which has
sections made up of neurons assigned to each body area. These signals
are passed on to the neurons in the somatosensory cortex which contains
the brain's own map of the body. Our experience and expectations
are geared to our perceptions, which have a wide range of subjective interpretation.
Consciousness is intimately linked with the sensory-motor cortex (parietal
lobe). The sensory cortex is typically "mapped" onto the brain as
a small, distorted human figure called the "homunculus." Though they
are analogous, the homunculus of alchemy (the soul) is not equivalent to
the homunculus in the brain.
Rather than the elusive "seat of the soul," the sensory homunculus is part
of the "hardwired brain," a skin-map in the cortex. Yet it is implicated
in the somatic part of spiritual experience. Each part of the sensory
system is assigned a particular region in proportion to other parts.
Both sensory and motor cortices have about the same layout of corresponding
points. The body is reflected in the cortex.
[insert homunculus/brain diagram here]
A specific sensory to motor ratio is the reflection of the subjective and
objective facets of our nature. With eyes closed we can experience
the universe inside ourselves in sensory imagination, that is, subjectively.
With eyes open we can change "what there is" outside ourselves through
voluntary motor performance, that is, objectively.
These experiential and experimental facets are implicit in the nature of
self-referential, self-organizing systems. Self-reference implies
that the universe exists subjectively, that is, in reference to the self;
self-organization, or goal seeking, refers to the ability to rearrange
the outside universe (Fischer, 1967).
There is the complementary notion in the medieval consciousness science
of alchemy. In alchemy, the homunculus is sort of the primal test-tube
baby to be created through a dynamic process in the Hermetically-sealed
retort vessel. Paracelsus alleged that the entity could be created
from semen that is gently heated in the vessel for 40 days, then "magnetized."
It feeds daily on the hidden mysteries of nature. Some of the ancient
philosophers were said to have been begotten by this process.
Jungian psychology reads this process as the creation of a renewal of spirit
which takes place in the psyche when psychic contents are prevented from
"leaking out" and being lost. "Heating" is symbolic of amplifying
or intensifying the transformative process. In terms of chaos theory,
"magnetizing" the entity might insinuate the formation of a strange attractor
as the complex core of the system. An attractor describes a temporary
stability far from equilibrium. We can conceive of it as a polarization
of gray matter.
The homunculus is the archetype of the magical child. It is thus
an embryonic symbol of rebirth, or re-creation of self by Self. In
alchemy, the homunculus is generated by a succession of transformations
through the four elements to reach its essential nature. The elements
may be corresponded with the four arenas of human life: physical-earth;
emotional-water; mental-air; spiritual-fire. The homunculus mapped on the
sensory cortex gives us access to this transformational system through
This phenomenon has been dealt with in yoga as kundalini, the serpent power.
When it is activated there is a stimulus spreading along the sensory cortex
of both hemispheres of the brain. Stimulus may be induced electrically,
mechanically, or imaginally. When induced through imagination, the
experience is virtual in nature, yet just as "real," in terms of psychophysical
A (real or imagined) stimulus moves along the cortex, setting up
acoustical standing waves in the cerebral ventricles (Bentov, 1977).
Vibrations that arise in the ventricles are conducted to the gray matter
of the cortex which lines the fissure between the two hemispheres.
These vibrations stimulate and eventually "polarize" the cortex in such
a way that it tends to conduct a signal along the homunculus, usually beginning
from the toes upward. This creates a stimulus-loop, unlike the normal
input-output of normal signal processing. When nerve cells interact,
there is the seed of a bodily action within each pattern that arises through
Self-stimulation of the pleasure centers of the brain may be created by
circulating a current along the sensory cortex. When body motion
is involved, there is cross-talk onto the similarly-mapped motor cortex.
Standing waves can be induced mechanically through resonance by pulsating
a magnetic field around the head at frequencies of 4-7 Hz (Theta), or through
the auditory channel by eliciting frequency following response.
Areas of stress in the body may produce symptomatic responses when stimulated
through the homunculus. It usually appears as localized pain.
Severity is proportional to the degree of stress encountered. Participants
in process work report paradoxical sensations of hot-cold, and pleasure-pain.
Pain and temperature are intimately related, and initiate experiences of
suffering and comfort, chills and thrills. "Heat and cold" are the
archetypal guardians residing in the brain stem. These signals are
processed in the amygdala of the limbic forebrain (frontolimbic system).
Pleasure and pain are mediated by the ergotrophic (sympathetic nervous
system) and trophotrophic (parasympathetic) systems of arousal, and their
neurotransmitters, noradrenelin and serotonin. At their extremes,
they paradoxically convert into their opposite. Arousal and involvement
with the outer world (action) is mediated by the ergotrophic system; tranquility
and the inner world (contemplation, relaxation)) by the trophotropic system.
Sympathetic nervous system activity involves goal-orientation, increased
tone of striated muscles, cortical desynchronization, excitement of smooth
muscles of the eye, heart, and vascular system, goose-flesh, inhibition
of gastrointestinal activity, increase in adrenomedullary secretions, and
rise in blood sugar.
Parasympathetic activity is characterized as satiety, decreased respiration,
cortical synchonization (alpha, theta), inhibitory effects on smooth muscles
of eye, heart, and vascular system, muscular relaxation, increased visceral
activity, and fall in blood sugar.
Hyperarousal can be symbolized as a Plenum; hypoarousal as a Void.
When the sensory cortex is overwhelmed, it paradoxically switches to void-consciousness.
Paradoxes provide the dynamic for transcendental experiences and the attainment
of creative consciousness. The shift takes place as we move from
a sense of "I" or ego toward the transpersonal self, or no-boundaries condition.
Pain and anxiety arise from an inability to verify the state of arousal
through cortical interpretive models or voluntary motor activity.
But in the bliss state, there is no separate "I" left to become anxious,
feel pain, or "freak out." It is characterized by oneness with everything.
The paradox of the ergotrophic and trophotropic systems is that they not
only represent the guardians or obstacles of spiritual paths, but they
are also the paths themselves. Increased trophotrophic arousal represents
a perception-meditation continuum which culminates in samadhi, while increasing
ergotropic arousal represents a perception-hallucination continuum which
culminates in ecstasy (Fischer, 1971).
Jung described a "full void" he called the pleroma as a source of Everything--a
sense of vastness, of emptiness that is nevertheless ordering. In
complex dynamics, ordering does not come from a single "somewhere" but
from everywhere and nowhere--from the void that is full.
The sensory/motor ratio may be increased either by enhancing the sensory
component (overloading the nervous system with drumming, dancing, sweating,
music, mental or physical stress), or by inhibiting the motor component.
The paradoxical shift happens because of sensory input overload coupled
with motor activity impairment.
In this meditative-like state, the brain produces endorphins and enkephalins
which block pain perception and create feelings of well-being. The
electronic signal is converted into a chemical messenger, forming the material
basis of emotions (Pert, 1988).
Neuropeptides and their receptors are the key to understanding how mind
and body are interconnected and how emotions can be manifested throughout
the body. It makes more sense to speak of an integrated entity, since
this information network is based in chaotic dynamics, and chaotic systems
An interesting feature of peptides is that they grow directly off the DNA
which stores the information to make our brains and bodies. The brain's
cells create neuropeptides. About 60 neuropeptides have been identified
so far. There are receptor sites for them in the body as well as
the brain. They are intimately linked with the function of the immune
system and the biochemistry of emotions. They float within the body,
attaching to receptors which sort out the information exchange in the body.
Receptors are concentrated within the limbic system of the brain which
mediates emotion, and other nodal points like the back horn of the spinal
cord, (brain stem). This is the first synapse in the brain where
touch-sensory information is processed. All senses enter the brain
through a nodal point for neuropeptide receptors. Most signals enter
through the old brain, or "reptilian" brain, the serpent which lies sleeping
within. Chemically speaking, neuropeptides mediate our drives, bringing
us to a state of consciousness and to alterations in those states (mood
state). They integrate brain and body.
The agents of the immune system (monocytes) are mobile cells which have
receptors for every neuropeptide. Receptor sites also create neuropeptides.
Immune cells make the same chemicals which control mood in the brain.
Emotion-affecting biochemicals control the routing and migration of monocytes.
The immune system distinguishes between self and non-self, preserving the
integrity of the organism.
Neuropeptides are signaling molecules. They signal receptors.
Biochemist Candace Pert, who discovered endorphins, postulates that "receptors
have both a wave-like and a particulate character, and it is important
to note that INFORMATION CAN BE STORED IN THE FORM OF TIME SPENT IN DIFFERENT
The molecular substance of all receptors of all species is the same, down
to the simplest of animals, demonstrating the simplicity and unity of life.
So, there are 60 or so signal molecules for enlivening emotions or flowing
energy. Pert notes: "The identical molecular components for information
flow are conserved throughout evolution."
Mind is information flow with a physical substrate. The brain, glands,
and immune system are joined in a bi-directional network of communication
where the information carriers are neuropeptides. Mind holds the
network of bodily parts together.
Pert maintains that, "it is possible now to conceive of mind and consciousness
as an emanation of emotional information processing, and as such, mind
and consciousness would appear to be independent of brain and body." Walter
Freeman says, "a conscious "willed" action begins as a self-organized
pattern of neural activity in the limbic system."
FREE WILL AND GOAL-SEEKING BEHAVIOR
Just prior to his death in 1961, Jung was asked about his idea of God during
an interview. Jung's reply accents the chaotic elements of life.
His answer was that, "To this day God is the name by which I designate
all things which cross my willful path violently and recklessly, all things
which upset my subjective views, plans and intentions and change the course
of my life for better or worse."
We find this sentiment echoed in alchemy, where the transformation of God
is also the secret and essential meaning of alchemy. The prima materia
to be transformed into the Philosopher's Stone via the alchemical process
is sometimes identified explicitly with God. Both seem to be saying
that God manifests in our lives through chaotic intervention that is much
like a fluctuation, state change, or bifurcation.
As we participate in the recycling of consciousness, we become identified
with God and the I-Thou (subject-object) dichotomy is transcended.
This transcendental notion is reflected in physics: the observer
is the observed. We identify "God" or evolutionary dynamics as the
prime agent of chaos--chaotic dynamics in action. This is a naturalistic
or pantheistic philosophy wherein God is identical with the holomovement
(Bohm) of the universe. Consciousness is a more subtle form of matter.
In physics, the Uncertainty Principle speaks of the fundamental nature
of indeterminacy. Chaos theory reveals the determinacy within the
most apparently random influences. Therefore, the naturalist point-of-view
or natural philosophy must imply "indeterminate-determinacy" or "determinate-indeterminacy."
This paradox appears convoluted enough to reflect the nature of reality--a
chaotic world of probabilities. It is deterministic in principle,
yet virtually random in practice.
This paradox once again raises the question of the plenum/void. In
quantum mechanics the vacuum state contains no real matter or light, yet
has in it (through the uncertainty principle) all possible matter and light
in the form of so-called 'virtual particles' or 'zero-point' fluctuations.
The state of pure consciousness is also said to contain all possibilities,
to be a state of pure potentiality in the sense that it is empty but lively
We encounter phenomena analogous to "indeterminate-determinacy"
in consciousness journeys. We cannot predict just how the imagery
will unfold, but it does conform to certain archetypal patterns and forms.
These patterns appear to be self-organizing, self-generating, and self-iterating.
They are chronic, having a tendency to recur over time, as one form of
Experientially, we can move through the dialogical experiences (I-Thou)
of the symbolic or archetypal layers of the psyche into the clear light
of the void which is All and No-Thing (Unitive). This is the ground
state of consciousness. Only from this unstructured state can we
"formulate" and express our True Will, in alignment with the whole, rather
than personality's desires.
For centuries philosophers have conjectured over the amount of "play" in
the web-work of fate, and to what degree we control our own destinies.
Jung commented on the limitations of normal human will--the will of the
ego--and its limitations in "On the Nature of the Psyche":
The will cannot transgress the bounds of the psychic sphere: it cannot
coerce the instinct, nor has it power over the spirit, in so far as we
understand by this something more than the intellect. Spirit and
instinct are by nature autonomous and both limit in equal measure the applied
field of the will.
This autonomy of the deeper self is why we are limited in our self-mastery,
and creates the impotence we feel when faced with "the slings and arrows
of outrageous fortune." There are many things in life we can't control
despite our best efforts. There are many things we wouldn't want
to control if we could.
The independent will of the deep self appears as "God's Will." From
the transcendent perspective personal free will is a moot point, since
it is subject to being "overwritten," through chaotic intervention.
It is not exclusively an inner or outer reality, though it has aspects
of both. Immersion in the imaginal drama of the psyche changes us
in fundamental ways. Chaotic intrusions from the outer world can
also be meaningful in our spiritual life.
To Jung, will was simply freely available psychic energy, which could be
directed by an intervention of consciousness--a decision to apply that
energy in a specific way for a purpose--intent. Its availability
is determined by one's freedom from distorted or deformed patterns.
Neurotic or pathological patterns keep the energy tied up, stuck, unavailable.
When the energy is freed up it becomes available. If will means freedom
of choice, then the question becomes "to what life purpose do we direct
our will?" Does the ego learn to subordinate itself to the totality
of self? Is ego free of identification with the power instinct?
Freedom of will remains a mystery. 'Will' implies intention and power
to implement that intention. This determines our values and choices.
Ego's perspective is too circumscribed and linear to make informed decisions.
Becoming permeable, opening to the complex, non-linear input of intuition
and spirituality may help. We are often forced from our course through
lack of self understanding as well as external opposition.
Will is a dynamism which implies degrees of freedom within the constraints
of "indeterminate - determinacy." It operates along a continuum which
includes instinct, impulse, ambition, drive and compulsion. It is
a form of energy that can overcome other forms of energy, such as feeling
A will turned toward self-understanding develops psychological faith in
the reality of imaginal experience through self-reflection. Psychological
faith is reflected as the love of images, and confirms the reality of the
soul as image-making power.
The inner world is just as "real" as the outer, although different.
This acknowledgement translates into an alignment with one's wholeness,
beyond simplistic wishes and personalistic desires. They are real
in different ways that can be recognized and experienced. One world
is visible, the other invisible or virtual or implicate (enfolded).
But the two apparent worlds are one. Matter is not different than
consciousness--but consciousness is not limited to matter.
The rational mind cooperates with the soul, once it is convinced there
is something beyond itself. At this stage, will or change comes through
an imaginal or meditative process. The alchemists had an operation
for the incubation of images known as the meditatio--a sort of brooding
on imagery--a way of being in imagination.
In terms of human biology, Walter Freeman suggests that neural activity
patterns emerging by chaotic dynamics express a drive toward a goal in
the form of commands to the motor and sensory systems. Sensory consequences
are fed back into the limbic system through the entorhinal cortex.
Sensory input converging onto the entorhinal area is channelled into the
hippocampus, then returned to the entorhinal and motor cortices and finally
passed on to the motor system--action. Emergent properties within
the entorhinal area condition behavior. There is spontaneous, self-organized,
dynamic production of goal-oriented behavior.
Freeman boldly asserts (1990) that, "Philosophical and psychological
considerations suggest that the cyclical process of emergent goal-seeking,
reafference, and sensory feedback constitute the basis for what we perceive
as subjective consciousness." This process leads to perception,
concept formation, a "cognitive map."
Consciousness is an intrinsic emergent property. Through the chaotic
process of emergence, order appears "spontaneously" (or instantaneously)
within a system. A willed action begins as a self-organized pattern
of neural activity in the limbic system, initiating a motor command to
the sympathetic system and a corollarly discharge within the somatosensory
Complex feedback (confirmation of change) from these systems constitutes
integration. This process contains the essence of our relationship
to our world. Yet, this process cannot be said to "create" nor contain
consciousness. Consciousness emerges from chaos. Their essence
Creation is instantaneous. The flow of energy washes life and consciousness
into the world. Chaos reflects the wildness and irregularity in nature,
and in ourselves.
Virtually random element endow chaotic ystems with the freedom to explore
vast ranges of consciousness and behavior patterns within the creative
In process work, adherence to the principles of chaosophy means that we
don't try to create with the will. There is no need to do so.
We simply notice and follow what is naturally happening, following nature's
lead. Chaos is nature's guide, the matrix of formation of imagery,
consciousness, and matter.
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OF CONSCIOUSNESS, 1967.
Fischer, Roland, "A Cartography of Exalted and Meditative States," SCIENCE,
Freeman, Walter, "On the Fallacy of Assigning an Origin to Consciousness,"
MACHINERY OF THE MIND,
E. Roy John, Ed., Birkhausser, Boston, 1990.
Gowan, John Curtis, TRANCE, ART, AND CRETIVITY, California State University,
Gowan, John Curtis, OPERATIONS OF INCREASING ORDER, California State University,
Northridge, 197 .
Jung, C.G., ON THE NATURE OF THE PSYCHE, Princeton University Press, Princeton,
Miller, Webb, & Dickson, "A Holographic Concept of Reality," PSYCHOENERGETIC
SYSTEMS, S. Krippner, Ed., Gordon and Breach, New York, London, Paris 1979,
Pert, Candace, "The Material Basis of Emotions," WHOLE EARTH REVIEW, Summer
Tart, Charles, "Multiple Personality, Altered States, and Virtual Reality;
The World Simulation Process Approach," DISSOCIATION, Vol. III, No. 4,